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河南专升本英语语法—— 虚拟语气

 虚拟语气

 
英语有两种语气——陈述语气和虚拟语气。陈述语气表示事实上发生的事情或客观存在的情况。虚拟   语气表示假定、想象、愿望等非事实观念。
.条件句中的虚拟语气
  1. If 引导的条件句,用虚拟语气
  if 从句 主句
 
与现在事实相反
过去式 would/could/should/might
+ 动词原形
 
与过去事实相反
 
had + 过去分词
would/could/should/might
+have+ 过去分词
 
与将来事实相反
过去式should+动词原形
were to
would/could/should/might
+ 动词原形
Eg:If I had enough money, I would/could/should/might buy a camera.
If it had not rained yesterday, we should have gone fishing. If it should rain tomorrow, I would not go.
I f I were to go abroad, I would go to America.
注意:条件从句 if 的省略
当从句中有 were,had, 或 should 时,if 经常省略,这时把 were,had,should 移至句首。
Eg:Were I a bird, I would fly to you. = If I were a bird, I would fly to you。
  1. without, but for, otherwise, or, but 引导的句子表示假设情况,通常用虚拟语气。
  主句
与现在或将来事实相反 would/could/should/might + 动词原形
与过去事实相反 would/could/should/might +have+ 过去分词
Eg:I knew my uncle did have no time. Otherwise he would have kept me company to go hiking.
 
二.表示坚持命令建议要求等意思的词引导的句子,用虚拟语气即从句谓语动词用(should )+动词原形,should 可以省略。
这一类的词有:desire, demand, advice, advise, insist, require, suggest, propose, order, recommend, decide, command, request, ask, suggestion, requirement, proposal
Eg:I demand that he (should) answer me immediately. The head nurse insisted that the patient not be move. His advice that we (should) study hard is useful.
His suggestion was that the meeting (should) be put off.
【注意】
①suggest 意为“表明,暗示”时,宾语从句不用虚拟语气. His pale face suggested that he was in poor health.
②insist 意为“坚持认为,坚持说”时,宾语从句不用虚拟语气。
He insisted that he did not kill the boy.

三.主语从句中的虚拟语气
It is+形容词/ 名词/ 过去分词+ that 引导的主语从句,用虚拟语气即从句谓语动词用(should )+动词原形,should 可以省略。
常用形容词:necessary, important, essential, imperative, urgent, preferable, vital, advisable 等 常常用名词:duty, pity, regret, no wonder, shame 等。
常用过去分词:demanded, suggested, required, requested, ordered, decided等Eg: It is suggested that pupils (should) wear school uniforms.
It is important that everyone (should) inform themselves of these rules. It is a pity that he (should) refuse to accept the offer.
 
四.其他形式的虚拟语气
  1. It's (high/about) time +that 从句 该句型用虚拟语气 译为“该干某事了” 谓语动词用过去式或者 should+动词原型,其中 should 不能省略。
Eg:It is high time that you went to school.
  1. wish 引导的宾语从句和 as if, as though,if only 引导的状语从句,用虚拟语气。
  从句
与现在事实相反 一般过去时
与过去相反 had+done
与将来相反 would/could/should/might + 动词原形
Eg: He felt as if he were responsible for what had happened.
He treats me as if I were a stranger.
Look at the terrible situation I am in! If only I had followed your advice. If only I had not been busy last week.
(3)would (had) rather, would as soon, would sooner 其后的宾语从句用虚拟语气
  从句
对现在/将来 一般过去时
对过去 had+done
Eg: I would rather he went right now.
(4) lest, in case, for fear that 引导的目的状语从句,用虚拟语气即从句谓语动词用(should )+动词原形,should 可以省略。
Eg: The old man walks slowly for fear that he (should) fall down.
 
五.情态动词+have done”的用法
must have done 过去一定做过某事
can't / couldn't have done 过去不可能做过某事
may have done 过去可能做过某事
might / could have done 过去可能做过某事,或者表示本能够做某事而实际上没做
should / ought to have done 表示本应该做某事而实际上没做
needn't have done 表示本不必做某事而实际上做了
例如:— I left my handbag on the train, but luckily someone gave it to a railway official.
— How unbelievable to get it back! I mean, someone  it.
A. will have stolen B. might have stolen C. should have stolen D. must have stolen

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