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河南专升本英语语法—— 倒装

 倒装

 
英语最基本的语序是主语在前,谓语动词在后。但有时由于句子结构的需要或表示强调,就要采用倒装形式。倒装分为全部倒装和部分倒装,将谓语动词完全移到主语之前称为完全倒装,只将助动词或情态到主语之前称为部分倒装。
 
一、完全倒装(主谓倒装)是指把谓语全部提到主语的前面。例:In a lecture hall of a university in England sits a professor.
  1. 以 here, there,now, then 引导的句子,要完全倒装。这种句子中的谓语动词通常是不及物动词。如:Here comes the train! / There goes the bell!
注意:若代词作主语,只把该副词提前主谓语序不变。
Here he comes . / Here it is .
  1. 句首以 out , in , up ,away , down 等副词开头,句子要完全倒装。(注意,这时句子的主语也必须是名词。如果是人称代词,也不能使用倒装结构。)
如:Up went the rocket. /Up it went.
  1. 介词短语作状语在句首,句子要完全倒装。注意,这时句子的谓语动词通常是不及物动词。   如:In the front of the lecture hall sat the speaker.
 
二、部分倒装(助动词倒装)是指把谓语的一部分(助动词)提到主语的前面。例:Never in my life have I seen such a thing.
  1. 用于疑问句中。
如:How did you do that?
Did you see the film yesterday?
  1. if 虚拟从句中如有 were ( had , should ) , if 省去后,要部分倒装,把 were,had,should 提到主语前面。如:
If you had come yesterday, you would have seen him.
---Had you come yesterday, you would have seen him.
  1. as 引导的让步状语从句,要部分倒装(表语、状语倒装)。有以下几种形式:
1)副词置于句首。
如:Much as I like it (=Although I like it very much), I will not buy it. 2)动词置于句首。
如:Wait as you may (= Although you may wait), he will not see you. 3)形容词或名词置于句首。
如:Proud as the nobles are (=Although the nobles are proud), they are afraid to see me. Child as he is (=Although he is a child), he can tell right from wrong.
注意:如果名词前有形容词修饰时,as 引导的倒装句中要保留不定冠词。
如:A bad-tempered man as he is (=Although he is a bad-tempered man), he loves me deeply.
  1. 句首为否定词或否定意义的词语时,句子要部分倒装。
( not , not only , never , little , seldom , not until, hardly / scarcely /rarely, no sooner,not once, at no time,... )
Little do we know about him.
No sooner had he closed his eyes than he fell asleep. Seldom does he come back on Sundays.
Not until he came back did I know about it.

  1. only 在句首引导状语,或 not until 引导的状语在句首,主句要部分倒装。如:Only then did I realize the important of English.
Only when a child grows up does he understand his parents’ intentions.
但若 only 修饰的是句子的其它成分,则无需倒装。
如:Only socialism can save China. (only 修饰句子的主语,仍用正常语序)
  1. not only ... but also ... 引导两个并列句,前倒后不倒。
如:Not only does he do well in his lessons, but also he often helps others with their lessons.
  1. 在以 often, well, many a time, now and again 等方式或频度副词(短语)开头的句子中,要用部分倒装结构。如:Many a time has John given me good advice. / Often have we made that test.
  2. 用于某些表示祝愿的句子里。
May you succeed!
  1. so 或 so 引导的短语放在句首,要部分倒装。
So loudly did he speak that even people in the next room could hear him.
so…that 结构中的倒装。有时要强调 so 所修饰的形容词或副词,常将 so 连同它所修饰的形容词或副词一起提到句首。这时,主句要用倒装结构。如:
He runs so fast that he is far ahead of others.
---So fast does he run that he is far ahead of others.
He is so clever that he can work out all the difficult problems in the book.
---So clever is he that he can work out all the difficult problems in the book.
  1. 状语位于句首表示强调或使句子平衡,或使上下文紧密衔接,句子要部分倒装。

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