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河南专升本英语语法——状语从句

状语从句

 
在复合句中担当状语的从句叫做状语从句。状语从句按其功能可分为时间、地点、原因、目的、   结果、条件、让步、比较、方式九种。
 
时间状语从句 when , whenever , as , while, before , after, until, till, since, ever since,once, as s
oon as, every time, the moment, instantly, directly
地点状语从句 where , wherever
原因状语从句 as, because, since, seeing(that) , considering (that) , now that , not that…but that
目的状语从句 that , so that , in order that , lest , for fear that , in case
结果状语从句 that , so … that , such … that
条件状语从句 if , unless , suppose , supposing ,so/as long as, so far as,
on condition(that ) ,provided ( that )
让步状语从句 though , although , no matter , even if , even though , however , whatever
比较状语从句 than , as
方式状语从句 as, as if, as though
 
一、 时间状语从句
1、 when, while, as 和 whenever when 表时间点,时间段
while 表时间段;有“而”的意思
as “当……”,“一边……一边”,“随着……” whenever 每当,无论什么时候
Eg: It is cold when it snows.
While there is life, there is hope.
While we were speaking, he was reading newspaper.
Just as Mrs Richards was entering the dinning-room, there was a knock on the front door
如果主句表示的是短暂动作,而从句用延续性动词的进行时态表示在一段时间内正在进行的动作时,when,
while 与 as 可互换使用。如:
When/While/As I was walking down the street,I came across an old friend of mine. 2 、 before/ after
Eg: It will be five years before we meet again.五年之后我们才能见面。After you think it over, please let me know what you decide.
After her husband had gone to work, she sent her children to school.
3 、 until, till, not...until
  1. 肯定句:主句的谓语是延续性动词,主从句均为肯定式,意为“某动作一直持续到某时间点才停止”    Eg: Please wait until I come back.等我回来。
  2. 否定句:主句的谓语是非延续性动作,从句为肯定式,意为“某动作一直到时间点才开始”   Eg: He won’t go to bed till/until she returns.
  3. Till 不可以用在句首,而 until 可以
Eg: Until you told me I had no idea of it.

4、since 从句谓语动词多用于一般过去时态,主句用现在完成时态或现在完成进行时态
Eg She has been working in this factory since she left school.
I have written to Alice four times since I came here.
It is +一段时间+since 从句的句型中,时间计算一律从 since 从句动作完成或状态结束时算
Eg: It is three years since the war broke out. 战争爆发以来,有三年了。
It is three years since she was in our class.她离开我们班有三年了。
5、by the time 到……时候;到……之前(从句用一般过去时,主句用过去完成时) Eg: By the time I got outside, the bus had already left.
 
二、地点状语从句
where 或 wherever/ anywhere/ everywhere Eg: Stay where you are.
The photo of mine was taken where stood the famous high tower. Wherever you go, you can see new factories and stories.
Everywhere you go, you will find the same thing. Where there is a will, there is a way.
Plants will grow almost anywhere there is plenty of air, water and sunlight.
判断:You’d better make a mark where you have questions.
You’d better make a mark at the place where you have questions.
 
三、原因状语从句
because/as/for/seeing that/considering that…由于since/now that 既然
  1. because 强调原因,是句子较重要的部分,在很多情况下,不能用 since,for
等替代。
Eg: Henry didn’t go to the office because it was raining.
He resigned partly because he was old and partly because he was bored with the work. I didn’t help, not because I was unwilling, but because I was unable to do it.
  1. as 和 since 所提出的原因是已知的,或是句中不重要的部分,since 较 as 稍正式一些
Eg: As his fat is in a large town, he has no garden of his own.
Since you don’t trust him, you should not employ him.
  1. for,一种补充说明,而且 for 引导的句子不能放在句首,for 是并列连词
Eg: He seldom goes out now, for he is very old.
  1. not that…but that...“不是因为……而是因为……”
Eg: It’s not that I’m dissatisfied, but that I have my own business to attend to.
5) in that 多出现主句之后;seeing that 因为,鉴于;considering that 因为,考虑到
Eg: I like this place, but I like my hometown better in that I have more friends there.
Seeing that/ since he was there, he may have seen her. That is excusable considering/ seeing (that) he is so young.
 
四、 条件状语从句
1) 真实条件从句:属性,习惯,推测,对未来的预测
Eg: If you heat ice, it melts.
If he is in London, he is undoubtedly staying at this hotel.

If businessmen want to borrow money, they go to see their bank managers. If he breaks his promise, she’ll never speak to him again.
  1. 非真实条件句:虚拟语气
3)区别:if only 引导状语从句,要用虚拟语气,“但愿,要……就好了” only if  只有,用陈述语气
Eg: If only I had more money, I could buy a car. (对现在情况表示遗憾)
If only I had known it, I wouldn’t have troubled him. (对过去情况表示遗憾) You’ll succeed only if you put all your heart into it.
  1. provided/ providing (that)“在……条件下”,“要是”,“以……为条件”
on condition (that)under the condition (that) suppose/ supposing (that)“假定”,主句多是疑问句Eg: I will come providing (that) I am well enough.
I will go there on the condition that you accompany me. Supposing he can’t come, who will do the work?
  1. as/ so long as… “只要”重点在于时间的延续性,从句可用现在时表将来。
Eg: You may borrow this book as long as you keep it clean.
  1. unless“除非”,相当于“if…not…”,引导的从句不能用否定式Eg: I will go there tomorrow unless it rains.
 
五、方式状语从句
as “如,像”; as if=as though “好像,仿佛……似的” Eg: I live as others do.
He looks as if he is angry.
 
六、让步状语从句
1、though, although, while, whereas, even if, even though “虽然,尽管”
though 和 although
两者意思相同,一般可互换使用,都可以与
Eg: Though/ Although it was raining hard, yet they went on playing football. 2、whatever=no matter what, whichever=no matter which
Whoever, whomever, whenever, wherever, however Eg: Stay calm whatever happens.
Whenever he comes, he brings us some parents. Whichever side wins, I shall be satisfied.
Poor though he is, he is generous.
Child as he was, he knew what was the right thing to do.
Strange as this behavior may be, there is a very good reason for it. Try as he will, he never seems able to succeed.
 
七、结果状语从句
so+ adj./adv. +.that 从句 so+ adj.+a/an + 可数名词单数+that 从句
so many/ few/ much/ little +名词 + that 从句
such + a/an + adj. +  可数名词单数+ that 从句
such + adj. +可数名词复数/不可数名词 + that 从句
such + a lot of/ lots of +  名词+that 从句

Eg: The wind was so strong that he would hardly move forward. We have such difficult problems that no one would like to solve. He is such a lovely child that everybody loves him.
He gave me so little time that it was impossible for me to finish the work on time. There are so many picture-
story books that the boy won’t leave.
 
八、目的状语从句
  1. so that, in order that  “为了”
Eg:I stepped aside so that he would go in.
  1. lest, in case, for fear that    ““  免得,以免”
Eg:She took the umbrella lest it (should) rain. There is some money in case you need it.
Mary didn’t want get out of bed for fear that she might wake her baby up.

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